Síndrome post-covid-19: manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes

  • Gissell Andrea Galarza Vera Universitario en Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
  • John Carlos Delgado Zambrano Investigador Independiente
  • Adriana Elizabeth Alvia Párraga Investigador Independiente
  • Víctor Alfonso Andrade Zambrano Hospital IEES Ceibos
  • Michell Estefanía Franco Ortega

Resumen

El COVID-19 desde su aparición en Wuhan, China, se ha propagado y ha tenido un profundo impacto en la vida y la salud de los individuos a nivel mundial. Hasta el 4 de julio de 2021, se habían registrado más de 183 millones de casos confirmados de SARS-CoV-2 y 3,97 millones de muertes a nivel mundial.

El síndrome post-COVID es el término empleado en los pacientes que se han recuperado del SARS-CoV-2 pero los síntomas persisten. Estos síntomas involucran trastornos físicos persistentes que producen condicionamiento en las actividades regulares como el trabajo y actividad física, también produce secuelas cognitivas, en muchos casos la inmunosupresión es persistente, muchos de los pacientes tienen fibrosis pulmonar, cardíaca y vascular después de haber culminado con la fase de infección aguda por COVID-19.

Los síntomas del síndrome post- COVID incluyen fatiga, disnea, dolor muscular, trastornos del sueño, deterioro cognitivo, anomalías cardíacas, síntomas de trastorno de estrés postraumático, problemas de concentración y cefalea. Esta revisión resume los síntomas más frecuentes que cursan los pacientes hospitalizados y no hospitalizados que superaron la infección aguda por SARS-CoV-2, también se discute las guías terapéuticas para dichos pacientes.

Palabras clave: covid-19, sars-cov-2, síntomas persistentes, infección aguda, secuelas

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Citas

Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Informes de situación de la COVID-19. [Online].; 2022 [cited 2022 11 28. Available from: https://www.paho.org/es/informes-situacion-covid-19.

Lauren L. O´ Mahoney ARCGWEAWAZea. The prevalence and long-term health effects of Long Covid among hospitalised and non-hospitalised populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancelet. 2023 Jan; 55(101762).

Mora-Romo JF. Health psychology on long COVID: Strategies based on NICE and WHO guidelines recommendations. Redalyc. 2021 Jun; 45(4): p. 199-208.

Excellence NIfHaC. COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing the longterm effects of COVID-19. Guías médicas. Royal College of General Practitioners, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network; 2022.

Medline Plus. Post-COVID Conditions (Long COVID). [Online].; 2020 [cited 2022 11 26. Available from: https://medlineplus.gov/postcovidconditionslongcovid.html.

Nasserie T ea. Assessment of the frequency and variety of persistent symptoms among patients with COVID-19: A systematic review. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 May; 06(2111417).

The BMJ. Long covid—mechanisms, risk factors, and management. [Online].; 2021 [cited 01 12 2022. Available from: https://www.bmj.com/content/374/bmj.n1648.abstract?casa_token=msLWbW39SVkAAAAA:azvxsmUidYt2zDtN_Un_X9k3unkdpmGwVB0WIRFjpG0Vt01Vd6DV51NBCqHGhFwq0v46pOxrANg.

Organización Panoamericana de la Salud. Actualización Epidemiológica: Enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19). [Online].; 2021 [cited 2022 11 26. Available from: https://www.paho.org/es/documentos/actualizacion-epidemiologica-enfermedad-por-coronavirus-covid-19-2-diciembre-2021.

Organización Panoamericana de la Salud. Alerta Epidemiológica Brotes recurrentes de COVID-19. 15 de junio de 2022. [Online].; 2022 [cited 2022 11 26. Available from: https://www.paho.org/es/documentos/alerta-epidemiologica-brotes-recurrentes-covid-19-15-junio-2022.

Hoffmann M KWHSSea. SARSCell entry depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and is blocked by a clinically proven protease inhibitor. Cell. 2020;(181:271-280.e8).

P G. BMJ Opinion. [Online].; 2020 [cited 2022 11 28. Available from: https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2020/05/05/paul-garner-peoplewho-have-a-more-protracted-illness-need-help-to-understand-andcope-with-the-constantly-shifting-bizarre-symptoms/.

Perego E CFSLMJBPRAN. Why the patient-made term ‘long covid’ is needed. Welcome Open Research. 2020; 5.

Greenhalgh Trisha KMACBMHL. Management of post-acute covid-19 in primary care. BMJ Opinion. 2020;(370).

Forte G FFTRCM. COVID-19 pandemic in the Italian population: validation of a post-traumatic stress disorder questionnaire and prevalence of PTSD symptomatology. Int J Environ Res Publ Health. 2020; 17(4151).

Jiang H-j NJLZyea. Psychological impacts of the COVID-19 epidemic on Chinese people: exposure, post-traumatic stress symptom, and emotion regulation. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2020; 13(252).

Bryan Oronsky CLTCHAOSKMLea. Una revisión del síndrome post-COVID persistente (PPCS). SPRINGER. 2021 Jan.

Mao L WMCSHOCJea. Neurological manifestations of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study. medRxiv. 2022 Feb.

Yao X YFZMCCHBNPa. In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Projection of Optimized Dosing Design of Hydroxychloroquine for the Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-12. Clin InfectDis. 2020.

Baud D QXNSKMDPLFG. Real estimates of mortality following COVID-19 infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020.

Eleni Korompoki MGRSHISEKDea. Epidemiology and organ specific sequelae of post-acute COVID19: A narrative review. Science Direct. 2021 Jun; 83(1): p. 1-16.

McKaylee M Robertson SAQSGKCATHJMMea. The epidemiology of long COVID in US adults. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2022 Dec.

Q. Li XGPWXWLZYTea. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel Coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: p. 1199-1207.

J.F. Chan GKCAKTKMTHYLCCYea. Development and evaluation of novel real-time reverse transcription-PCR Assays with locked nucleic acid probes targeting leader sequences of human-pathogenic Coronaviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2020; 53: p. 2722-2726.

De Wit E VDNFDMV. SARS and MERS: Recent insights into emerging coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019; 14(8): p. 523-34.

Tian S XYLHea. Pathological study of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) through postmortem core biopsies. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020; 9(9): p. 1064-9.

Shi H HXJNCYea. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; 20(4): p. 425-434.

McCarthy B CDDDMKMELY. Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021.

Moodley YP SAMNea. Fibroblasts isolated from normal lungs and those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis differ in interleukin-6/gp130-mediated cell signaling and proliferation. Am J Pathol. .

Harry Crook SRJNMYPE. Long covid—mechanisms, risk factors, and management. BMJ. 2021 Jun;: p. 1-19.

Mandal S BJBSea. ARC Study Group. ‘Long-COVID’: a cross-sectional study of persisting symptoms, biomarker and imaging abnormalities following hospitalisation for COVID-19. Thorax. 2021;(76:396-8).

Heneka MT GDLEMDBR. Immediate and long-term consequences of COVID-19 infections for the development of neurological disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2020; 12(69).

Taquet M LSGJHP. Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: retrospective cohort studies of 62 354 COVID-19 cases in the USA. Lancet Psychiatry. 2021; 8: p. 130-40.

Needham EJ CSCAMD. Neurological implications of COVID-19 infections. Neurocrit Care. 2020; 32: p. 667-71.

Caress JB CRSZea. COVID-19-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome: The early pandemic experience. Muscle Nerve. 2020;(62): p. 485-91.

South K MLMBEMASSC. Preceding infection and risk of stroke: An old concept revived by the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Stroke. 2020; 15: p. 722-32.

Kaseda ET LA. Post-traumatic stress disorder: A differential diagnostic consideration for COVID-19 survivors. Clin Neuropsychol. 2020;(34): p. 1498-514.

Nalbandian A SKGAea. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. Nat Med. 2021;(27): p. 601-15.

Lee SY SKLCea. Operation and management of Seoul Metropolitan City Community Treatment Center for mild condition COVID-19 patients. J Korean Med Sci. 2020;(35).

Usher K BNJD. Life in the pandemic: Social isolation and mental health. J Clin Nurs. 2020;(29:2756-7.).

W. Zhang RHDBLXSZXLYBHea. Molecular and serological investigation of 2019-nCoV infected patients: implication of multiple shedding routes. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020;(9): p. 386-389.

Xu H ZLDJea. High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa. Int J Oral Sci. 2020; 12(8).

Pushpass RG PNKCPGCG. Reduced salivary mucin binding and glycosylation in older adults influences taste in an in vitro cell model. Nutrients. 2020; 11(3).

Huang C HLWYea. 6-month consequences of COVID-19 in patients discharged from hospital: a cohort study. Lancet. 2021;(397:220-32.).

Chan L CKSAea. Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. JASN 31. 2021.

Fignani DLGBNea. SARS-CoV-2 receptor Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme type 2 is expressed in human pancreatic islet β-cells and is upregulated by inflammatory stress. bioRxiv preprint. 2020.

Hadi A WMKKea. Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute pancreatitis: Case report on three family members. Pancreatology. 2020. ;: p. 20:665-7.

Liu F LXZBZWCXZZ. ACE2 expression in pancreas may cause pancreatic damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2020;(18:2128-2130.e2).

Zuo T ZFLGea. Alterations in gut microbiota of patients with COVID-19 during time of hospitalization. Gastroenterology Int. 2020.

Venkatesan P. NICE guideline on long COVID. The Lancet Resp. 2021; 9(2).

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing the long-term effects of COVID-19. [Online].; 2020 [cited 2022 12 12. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/NG188.

NIHR. Hidden lung damage from COVID-19 revealed in new study. [Online].; 2020 [cited 2022 12 12. Available from: https://oxfordbrc.nihr.ac.uk/hidden-lung-damage-from-covid-19-revealed-in-new-study/.

AV R. Long COVID-19: challenges in the diagnosis and proposed diagnostic criteria. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020; 15(1): p. 145e6.

Köhler CA FTSBea. Peripheral alterations in cytokine and chemokine levels after antidepressant drug treatment for major depressive disorderr: systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Neurobiol. 2021;(55:4195-206).

Omran HM AM. Influence of NAD+ as an ageing-related immunomodulator on COVID 19 infection: A hypothesis. J Infect Public Health. 2020;(13:1196-201).

Publicado
2023-01-19
Cómo citar
Galarza Vera, D. G. A., Delgado Zambrano, D. J. C., Alvia Párraga , D. A. E., Andrade Zambrano, D. V. A., & Franco Ortega , D. M. E. (2023). Síndrome post-covid-19: manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes. Ciencia Latina Revista Científica Multidisciplinar, 7(1), 859-887. https://doi.org/10.37811/cl_rcm.v7i1.4436
Sección
Artículos